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Portugal 1

Portugal NL

De Geschiedenis van Portugal is die van een oud Europees land, waarvan de oorsprong teruggaat tot de vroege middeleeuwen, dat opklom tot een wereldmacht in de tijd van de ontdekkingsreizen met het grote Portugese Rijk. Na het hoogtepunt van zijn wereldmacht in de 15de en 16de eeuw, verloor Portugal veel van haar rijkdom en status met de vernietiging van Lissabon in de aardbeving van 1755, de bezetting door Napoleon, en de onafhankelijkheid van Brazilië in 1822. Een revolutie in 1910 schafte de monarchie af, maar na corruptie en grote staatsschuld werd na een militaire coup een dictatuur geïnstalleerd die zou duren tot 1974, toen een linkse militaire coup democratische hervormingen doorvoerde. Het jaar daarop werden de Afrikaanse koloniën onafhankelijk. De nationale jaarlijkse feestdag is 5 oktober ter ere van oprichting van de republiek in 1910. Portugal was neutraal tijdens beide wereldoorlogen. [bewerk] Demografie Portugal is, wat de autochtone bevolking betreft, in taalkundig, etnisch en religieus opzicht een erg homogeen land. In het hele land wordt Portugees gesproken, met uitzondering van dorpen rond Miranda do Douro waar een Asturisch dialect wordt gesproken, het Mirandees. Het grootste deel van de Portugezen is aanhanger van het Rooms-katholieke geloof. [bewerk] Bevolking Portugal heeft ongeveer 10 miljoen inwoners, waarvan het grootste deel (circa 70%) in de dichtbevolkte kuststreek, die van de Spaanse grens tot aan Lissabon loopt, woont. Het zuiden en het achterland van de kuststrook zijn zeer dunbevolkt. Meer dan 10% van de bevolking woont in de steden Lissabon en Porto, de helft van de bevolking woont in plaatsen met minder dan 2000 inwoners. Desalniettemin is ook in Portugal een verstedelijkingstrend gaande. Binnen Portugal zijn er dan ook sterke migratiebewegingen van het achterland richting de industriële regio's van Lissabon en Porto en de toeristische regio's Algarve, Madeira en de Azoren. Portugal was lange tijd een emigratieland; belangrijke groepen Portugezen zijn te vinden in Brazilië en Frankrijk, vooral rond Parijs, dat wel eens de een na grootste Portugese stad ter wereld genoemd wordt. Ondertussen waren er sinds de dekolonisatie groepen immigranten uit voormalige koloniën die naar Portugal trokken. Sinds de toetreding tot de Europese Unie en de daarmee verbonden politieke en economische veranderingen is de immigratie, met name uit Afrika (Angola, Kaapverdië), Zuid-Amerika (Brazilië) en Oost-Europa (Rusland, Oekraïne, Moldavië) alleen maar toegenomen. Aan het eind van 2003 leefden er ongeveer 250.000 niet-Portugezen in Portugal. Meer dan de helft daarvan was afkomstig uit andere Portugeestalige landen met een gelijkende religieuze en culturele achtergrond: Dit is een van de redenen dat Portugal (in tegenstelling tot Nederland of België) veel minder immigratiegerelateerde problemen kent. Ongeveer een kwart van de buitenlandse inwoners is afkomstig uit Europa. Een gedeelte daarvan bestaat uit gepensioneerden die overwinteren in Portugal. Een ander gedeelte zijn remigrerende Portugezen die inmiddels het staatsburgerschap van hun emigratieland hebben aangenomen. Een op de tien Portugezen is van niet-Portugese afkomst; een gedeelte hiervan heeft het Portugese staatsburgerschap inmiddels verkregen. De allochtone bevolking is voornamelijk in de regio Lissabon (ca. 50%) en de andere stedelijke gebieden in de kuststrook te vinden. In het binnenland bestaat slechts 0,5% van de bevolking uit allochtonen. [bewerk] Taal In Portugal wordt Portugees gesproken. In de streek rond Miranda do Douro is het Mirandees erkend als minderheidstaal. [bewerk] Religie In Portugal is het geloof voornamelijk het Christendom waarvan 97% (Rooms-katholiek), verder zijn er nog protestanten, joden en hindoes (De hindoes komen uit Goa dat vroeger een Portugese kolonie was) te vinden. Portugal kent vrijheid van religie. Het bekende bedevaartsoord Fátima dat aan Maria gewijd is, ligt in Portugal. De uitgebreide Mariaverering in Portugal heeft ertoe geleid dat vaak aangenomen wordt dat voor de kerstening de inwoners van Portugal voornamelijk vrouwelijke goden aanbaden. [bewerk] Bestuurlijke indeling Zie ook District van Portugal Portugal is bestuurlijk ingedeeld in 18 districten (distritos) op het vasteland en twee autonome regio's (regiões autónomas) met aan het hoofd een benoemde gouverneur, de Azoren en Madeira. Deze zijn weer verder onderverdeeld in 309 gemeenten (concelhos), die op hun beurt weer zijn onderverdeeld in 4261 freguesias (buurtschappen of kleinere dorpen). Vroeger was Portugal verdeeld in elf provincies (van noord naar zuid): Minho, Trás-os-Montes, Alto Douro, Douro Litoral, Beira Alta, Beira Baixa, Estramadura, Ribatejo, Alto Alentejo, Baixo Alentejo en Algarve. [bewerk] Geografie [bewerk] Kerngegevens oppervlakte: 92.391 km² (excl. Azoren en Madeira: 88.889 km²) lengte landgrenzen: 1214 km (met Spanje) kustlijn: 832 km grootste meer: Alqueva stuwmeer (250 km²) hoogste punt: Ponta do Pico (Pico, Azoren) 2351 m (op continent: Serra da Estrela, 1993 m munteenheid: euro; tot invoering euro: Portugese escudo (PTE) = 100 centavos landcode (post, verkeer): P [bewerk] De provincies Portugal was ooit verdeeld in elf provincies: 1. Minho 2. Trás-os-Montes 3. Alto Douro 4. Douro Litoral 5. Beira Alta 6. Beira Baixa 7. Estramadura 8. Ribatejo 9. Alto Alentejo 10. Baixo Alentejo 11. Algarve [bewerk] Plaatsen De hoofdstad is Lissabon (Portugees: Lisboa) Andere steden zijn o.a.: Amadora Braga Coimbra Funchal Porto Zie ook: Lijst van grote Portugese steden Lijst van Portugese gemeenten [bewerk] Rivieren De grootste rivieren zijn: Taag (Portugees: Tejo) Douro Andere rivieren zijn: Guadiana Minho Mondego Sado [bewerk] Bezienswaardigheden Monumenten op de Werelderfgoedlijst [bewerk] Cultuur In de muziek is de Fado erg belangrijk. Madredeus is een voorbeeld van bekende, recente Portugese folkmuziek. [bewerk] Politiek Staatsvorm: Parlementaire democratie. Staatshoofd: President Anibal Cavaco Silva (PSD) sinds begin 2006. Regering: De Portugese regering wordt gevormd door de PS. De ministers worden benoemd door de President na aanbeveling van de Minister President. Regeringsleider: Minister President sinds maart 2005 is José Sócrates Parlement: Het Portugese parlement bestaat uit één kamer, de Assembleia da Republica. Deze telt 230 leden die gekozen worden voor een periode van vier jaar. President: Cavaco Silva, sinds 2006 (voor een termijn van 5 jaar). Politieke Partijen: Nationaal-Syndicalistische Beweging Nationale Unie (Portugal) Nationale Volksactie Portugese Republikeinse Partij Sociaal-Democratische Partij (Portugal) Socialistische Partij (Portugal) Portugese Communistische Partij Ecologische Partij/De Groenen (Portugal) Links Blok (Portugal) Volkspartij (Portugal) Uitslag laatste parlementsverkiezingen (2005): Partij Stemmen % Zetels Partido Socialista (PS) (Sociaaldemocraten) 45,1% 121 zetels Partido Social Democrata (PSD) (Liberaalconservatieven) 28,7% 75 zetels Partido Comunista Português (PCP) (Communisten) Met PEV 7,6% 12 zetels Partido Ecologista Os Verdes (PEV) (Groenen) Met PCP 7,6% 12 zetels Partido Popular (PP) (Nationaalconservatieven) 7,3% 12 zetels Bloco do Esquerda (BE) (Socialisten) 6,4% 8 zetels Overige Partijen 4,9% 0 zetels Bron: http://www.parties-and-elections.de Opkomstpercentage laatste parlementsverkiezingen was 65,0%. De volgende parlementsverkiezingen zijn in 2007. Zie ook: Lijst van presidenten van Portugal [bewerk] Vervoer Belangrijke internationale luchthavens in Portugal zijn: Porto Faro Lissabon Funchal op Madeira Belangrijke zeehavens zijn te vinden in Lissabon, Setúbal, Leixões en Sines. De lengte van het wegennet is circa 68.732 km. De lengte van het spoorwegennet 2850 km. Van het transport geschiedt 75,4 % over de weg en 15,3 % over het spoor. [bewerk] Eten en drinken De ligging van Portugal en haar verleden hebben ertoe geleid dat in de Portugese keuken veel vis wordt gebruikt. Er wordt wel eens gezegd dat er voor elke dag van het jaar wel een bacalhau-recept is. Ook varkensvlees is een favoriet ingredient in de Portugese keuken. Portugezen behoren tot de grootste rijsteters in Europa. Portugal is het enige Europese land waar Koriander van oudsher onderdeel is van de keuken. Portugese wijnen zijn erg bekend. Buiten Portugal zijn vooral bekend de port, vinho verde en madeira. De drie belangrijkste wijnregio's zijn Dão, Alentejo en Estremadura. Queijo da Serra, Azeitão en Serpa zijn populaire kazen. [bewerk] Sport O.a. voetbal, beachvolley, rollerhockey en atletiek. Zie ook: Europees kampioenschap voetbal 2004 [bewerk] Beroemde Portugezen Gil Vicente, schrijver Luís de Camões, dichter Fernando Pessoa, dichter Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen, dichter Herberto Helder, dichter Almeida Garrett, schrijver Alvaro Cunhal, politicus Camilo Castelo Branco, schrijver Eça de Queiroz, schrijver Ferreira de Castro, schrijver José Régio, schrijver José Saramago, schrijver Bartolomeu Diaz, zeevaarder Diogo Cão, zeevaarder Vasco da Gama, zeevaarder Ferdinand Magellaan, zeevaarder Pedro Álvares Cabral, zeevaarder Afonso d'Albuquerque, zeevaarder Eusébio da Silva Ferreira, voetballer José Mourinho, voetbalcoach Pedro Pauleta, voetballer Joaquim Agostinho, wielrenner Luís Figo, voetballer Amália Rodrigues, Fado-zangeres Cristina Branco, Fado-zangeres Mafalda Arnauth, Fado-zangeres Mariza, Fado-zangeres Dulce Pontes, zangeres António de Oliveira Salazar, minister-president (dictator) José Manuel Barroso, voorzitter van de Europese Commissie sinds 2004 Nuno Bettencourt, gitarist Cristiano Ronaldo, voetballer Paula Rego, schilder Manoel de Oliveira, filmmaker Carmen Miranda, zangeres Carlos Paredes, klassiek gitarist Siza Vieira, architect

Portugal EN

Portugal came into existence as an independent nation on June 24, 1128, when Afonso Henriques, Count of Portugal, defeated his mother, Countess Teresa, and her lover, Fernão Peres de Trava, in battle - thereby establishing himself as sole leader. Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself king of Portugal on July 25, 1139, after the Battle of Ourique and was recognized as such in 1143 by Alfonso VII, king of León and Castile, and in 1179 by Pope Alexander III. Afonso and his successors, aided by military monastic orders, pushed southward to drive out the Moors, as the size of Portugal covered about half of its present area. In 1249, this Reconquista ended with the capture of the Algarve on the southern coast. In 1373, Portugal made an alliance with England, which is the longest-standing alliance in the world. In the following decades, Portugal spearheaded the exploration of the world and undertook the Age of Discovery. Prince Henry the Navigator, son of King João I, became the main sponsor and patron of this endeavor. In 1383, the king of Castile, husband of the daughter of the Portuguese king who had died without a male heir, claimed his throne. An ensuing popular revolt led to the 1383-1385 Crisis. A faction of petty noblemen and commoners, led by John of Aviz (later John I), seconded by General Nuno Álvares Pereira, defeated the Castilians in the Battle of Aljubarrota. This celebrated battle is still a symbol of glory and the struggle for independence from neighboring Spain. In 1415, the Portuguese empire arose when a fleet conquered Ceuta, a prosperous Islamic trade center in North Africa. There followed the first discoveries in the Atlantic: Madeira and the Azores, which led to the first colonization movements. Throughout the 15th century, Portuguese explorers sailed the coast of Africa, establishing trading posts as they looked for a route to India and its spices, which were coveted in Europe. In 1498, Vasco da Gama finally reached India and brought economic prosperity to Portugal and its then population of one million residents. In 1500, Pedro Álvares Cabral landed in Brazil and claimed it for Portugal. Ten years later, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Goa, in India, Ormuz in the Persian Strait, and Malacca in what is now Malaysia. Thus, the Portuguese empire held dominion over commerce in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic. Padrão dos Descobrimentos, Lisbon The Castle of Guimarães, known as the "Cradle of Portugal".Portugal's independence was interrupted between 1580 and 1640. Because the heirless King Sebastian died in battle in Morocco, Philip II of Spain claimed his throne and so became Philip I of Portugal. Although Portugal did not lose its formal independence, it was governed by the same monarch who governed Spain, briefly forming a union of kingdoms; in 1640, John IV spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled nobles and was proclaimed king. This was the beginning of the long-lived dynasty of Braganza. By this time, however, the Portuguese empire was already under attack from other countries, specifically Britain and the Netherlands. Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline until the 20th century. This decline was hastened by the independence in 1822 of the country's largest colonial possession, Brazil. This contributed to a period of political chaos and civil war. In 1910, a revolution deposed the Portuguese monarchy, but chaos continued and considerable economic problems were aggravated by a disastrous military intervention in the First World War, which led to a military coup d'état in 1926. This in turn led to the establishment of a right-wing dictatorship by António de Oliveira Salazar. In the early 1960s, independence movements in the colonies of Angola, Mozambique, and Portuguese Guinea resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War. In 1974, a bloodless left-wing military coup led the way for a modern democracy. Portugal joined the European Union in 1986, and ever since Portugal has engaged in a process of convergence with its EU counterparts. [edit] Government and Politics Main articles on politics and government of Portugal can be found at the Politics and government of Portugal series. Assembly of the RepublicPortugal is a democratic republic ruled by the constitution of 1976 with Lisbon, the nation's largest city, as its capital. The four main governing components are the president of the republic, the assembly of the republic, the government, and the courts. The constitution grants the complete separation of powers among legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The president, who is elected to a five-year term, has a supervising, nonexecutive role. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral parliament composed of 230 deputies elected for four-year terms. The government is headed by the prime minister, who chooses a Council of Ministers, made up of ministers and their assistants, the secretaries of state. The national and regional governments are dominated by two political parties, the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party. The courts are organized into categories, including judicial, administrative, and fiscal. The supreme courts are the courts of last appeal. A nine-member constitutional court oversees the constitutionality of legislation. [edit] Foreign Relations and Military Main articles: Foreign Relations of Portugal and Military of Portugal An F-16 Fighting Falcon from the Portuguese Air ForcePortugal has been a member of NATO since 1949, the European Union since 1986, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries since 1996. It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with Brazil. It has good relations with the United States, the United Kingdom, and China (due to Macau), as well as the other European Union countries. Portugal has centuries-old diplomatic ties with Morocco[citation needed]. The only international dispute concerns the municipality of Olivenza, which Spain received in 1801 under the Treaty of Badajoz and has since administered. Portugal claimed it in 1815 under the Treaty of Vienna. Nevertheless, diplomatic relations between the two countries are cordial. The armed forces have three branches: Army, Navy, and Air Force. In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two major military interventions: the First Great War and the Colonial War (1961-1974). Portugal has participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Lebanon. The draft was abolished in 2003. [edit] Administrative Divisions Main article: Political divisions of Portugal Map of Mainland Portugal and the two autonomous regions of Portugal.Portugal has an administrative structure of 308 municipalities (Portuguese singular/plural: concelho/concelhos), which are subdivided into more than 4,000 parishes (freguesia/freguesias). Municipalities are grouped for administrative purposes into superior units, the most significant being the classification since 1976 into either mainland Portugal (Portugal Continental) or the autonomous regions of Portugal (Azores and Madeira). [edit] Geography and Climate Main articles: Geography of Portugal and Conservation areas of Portugal Continental Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagus (Tejo). The northern landscape is mountainous in interior areas, with plateaus indented by river valleys, which allow agricultural development. The south, between the Tejo and the Algarve (the Alentejo), features mostly rolling plains and a climate somewhat warmer and drier than in the cooler and rainier north. The Algarve, separated from the Alentejo by mountains, enjoys a Mediterranean climate like Morocco or southern Spain. Snow is usual in the northern half of the nation, around the 40 N parallel. It is a rare event in the south, but it does happen. The islands of the Azores and Madeira are located in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Some islands have had volcanic activity as recently as 1957. Portugal's highest point is Mount Pico on Pico Island, It is an ancient volcano measuring 2,351 m (i.e., 7,713 ft.). The climate can be classified as Mediterranean in the south and Oceanic in the north. One of the warmest European countries, yearly temperature averages in mainland Portugal are 13°C (55°F) in the north and 18°C (64°F) in the south. The Madeira and Azores archipelagos have a narrower temperature range. Spring and summer are sunny, whereas autumn and winter are rainy and windy. [edit] Economy Main article: Economy of Portugal Modern Parque das Nações, where Expo'98 took place.Portugal joined the European Union in 1986 and started a process of modernization within the framework of a stable environment. It has achieved a healthy level of growth. Successive governments have implemented reforms and privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy. Portugal was one of the founding countries of the euro in 1999. Major industries include oil refineries, automotive, cement production, pulp and paper industry, textile, footwear, furniture, and cork (the world's leading producer).[1] Agriculture no longer represents the bulk of the economy, but Portuguese wines, namely port wine (from Porto )and Madeira wine, are exported worldwide. Tourism is also important, especially in the Algarve and Madeira Islands. [edit] Energy, Transportation and Communications Main articles: Transportation in Portugal and Communications in Portugal An Airbus A330-200 from national airline TAP Portugal.In June 2006, U.S. energy companies GE Energy, PowerLight Corp. and Portuguese renewable energy company Catavento began building the world's largest solar power plant in southeast Portugal. The world's first commercial wave farm opened in October 2006 in northern Portugal. As of 2006, 55% of electricity production was from coal and fuel power plants. The other 40% was produced by hydroelectrics and 5% by wind energy. The government is channeling $3.8 billion into developing renewable energy sources over the next five years. Transportation was seen as a priority in the 1990s, pushed by the growing use of automobiles and industrialization. The country has a 68,732 km (i.e., 42,708 mi.) network of roads, of which 2,000 km (i.e., 1,240 mi.) are part of 44 motorways. World mobile phone usageThe two principal metropolitan areas have subway systems: Lisbon Metro and Porto Metro, each with more than 35 km (22 mi) of lines. Construction of a high-speed TGV line connecting Porto with Lisbon and Lisbon with Madrid will begin in 2008; it will replace the Pendolinos. A new Lisbon airport will be built at the same time in Ota. Portugal has one of the highest mobile phone penetration rates in the world. As of October 2006, 36.8% of households had high-speed Internet services and 78% of companies had Internet access. Most Portuguese watch television through cable (June 2004: 73.6% of households). The most important airports are in Lisbon, Faro (Algarve), Oporto, Funchal (Madeira), and Ponta Delgada (Azores). [edit] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Portugal The country is fairly homogeneous linguistically and religiously. Native Portuguese are ethnically a combination of pre-Roman Iberians and Celtics with some Roman and Germanic influences, among other minor contributions. In the 2001 census, the population was 10,356,117, of which 51.7% was female. By the end of 2003, legal immigrants represented 4.2% of the population, and the largest communities were from Ukraine, Brazil, Cape Verde, and Angola, with other immigrants from parts of Latin America and Eastern Europe. The great majority of Portuguese are Roman Catholic. The biggest metropolitan areas are Lisbon, Oporto, Braga, Coimbra, and Aveiro. Portugal, long a country of emigration, has now become a country of net immigration, and not just from the former Indian and African colonies. Today, many Eastern Europeans (especially Ukrainians, Moldavians, Romanians and Russians), as well as Brazilians, are making Portugal their home. There is a rapidly growing community of Chinese and a notable number of Macanese, who are descendants of Chinese and Portuguese settlers, with some Malays and Indians. [edit] Education Main article: Education in Portugal The tower of the famous University of CoimbraThe educational system is divided into preschool (for those under age 6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary education (3 years), and higher education (university and polytechnic). Portuguese universities have existed since 1290 and were first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra. Universities are usually organized into faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations, specially in politechnical institutions. The Bologna process is expected to be adopted before 2011. [edit] Law Main article: Portuguese Legal System The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. Until the end of the 19th century, French law was the main influence. Since then the major influence has been German law. The main laws include the Constitution (1976, as amended), the Civil Code (1966, as amended) and the Penal Code (1982, as amended). Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code (1888, as amended) and the Civil Procedure Code (1961, as amended). Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and continues to be the major influence for those countries. [edit] Religion Main article: Religion in Portugal Portuguese society is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic. Approximately 97% of the population consider themselves Roman Catholic [1], the highest percentage in Western Europe, but only about one-third attend mass and take the sacraments regularly. Yet a larger number wish to be baptized, married in the church, and receive last rites. The practice of religion shows striking regional differences. Even in the 1990s, 60% to 70% of the population in the north regularly attended religious services, compared with 10% to 15% in the historically anti-clerical south. In the greater Lisbon area, about 30% were regular churchgoers. [edit] Culture Main article: Culture of Portugal Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon.Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean or were introduced during the Age of Discovery. Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text and song. Until 1350, the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula.[2] Gil Vicente (ca. 1465 - ca. 1536), was one of the founders of both Portuguese and Spanish dramatic traditions. Adventurer and poet Luís de Camões (ca. 1524-1580) wrote the epic poem The Lusiads, with Vergil's Aeneid as his main influence. Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic and contemporary styles, as exemplified by Fernando Pessoa (1888?1935). Modern literature is internationally known through the works of Almeida Garrett, Camilo Castelo Branco, Eça de Queirós, Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen, António Lobo Antunes, and 1998 Nobel Prize winner, José Saramago, and others. Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. The most renowned is fado, a melancholy urban music, usually associated with the Portuguese guitar and saudade, or longing. Coimbra fado a unique type of fado is also noteworthy. Internationally notable performers include Amália Rodrigues, Carlos Paredes, Mariza, Mísia, and Madredeus. One of the most notable Portuguese musical groups outside the country, and specially in Germany, is the goth-metal band Moonspell. In addition to fado and folk, Portuguese listen to pop and other modern music. Bands who have international recognition include Blasted Mechanism and The Gift, who were both nominated for an MTV Music Award. Portugal has several music festivals: Zambujeira do Mar, Paredes de Coura, Rock in Rio Lisboa, and SuperBock SuperRock, among others. Traditional architecture is distinctive. Modern Portugal has given the world renowned architects Eduardo Souto de Moura and Álvaro Siza Vieira. Prominent international figures in visual arts include painters Vieira da Silva and Paula Rego. Since the 1990s, Portugal has increased the number of public cultural facitilies, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in 1956. These include the Belém Cultural Center in Lisbon, Serralves Foundation and the Casa da Música, both in Oporto. [edit] Cuisine Main articles: Portuguese Cuisine and Portuguese Wine Pastéis de nata (cream custards)Cuisine is particularly diverse. Recipes for rice, potato, bread, meat, seafood, and fish dishes are staples. The Portuguese have a reputation for loving cod (bacalhau in Portuguese), for which, it is said, there are 365 recipes (i.e, one for each day of the year): pastéis de bacalhau, bacalhau à Brás, and bacalhau à Gomes de Sá are some of the most popular ones. Other fish recipes are popular like grilled sardines and caldeirada. The art of pastry, having its origins in old and rich recipes, is popular. Desserts and cakes, such as Lisbon's pastéis de nata (delicious with strong coffee), Aveiro's ovos-moles, and many others, are appreciated. Portugal has its own adaptation of fast food; one of the most popular is Porto's francesinha. Other recipes include the feijoada, made with pieces of meat, sausages, and beans served with white and dry rice, the cozido à portuguesa, made with various kinds of meat, rice, potatoes and other vegetables, all boiled, and the espetadas. Wines have been exported since the time of the Romans, who associated Portugal with Bacchus, their god of wine and feasting. Today, the country is known by wine lovers, and its wines have won international prizes. Many famous Portuguese wines are known as some of the world's best: Vinho Verde, Vinho Alvarinho, Vinho do Douro, Vinho do Alentejo, Vinho do Dão, Vinho da Bairrada and the sweet: Port Wine, Madeira wine and the Moscatels of Setúbal and Favaios (Douro). Port wine is the most widely exported, followed by Vinho Verde, whose export is increasing rapidly in response to growing international demand. [edit] Sports and Games Main article: Culture of Portugal#Sports and games Luís Figo as captain of Portugal national football team.Football is the most known, loved and practiced sport. Luís Figo was one of the world's top players along with Cristiano Ronaldo, Ricardo Quaresma, and Nuno Gomes, some of them new to the team, but the legendary Eusébio is still a major symbol of Portuguese football. Figo retired from the National Team after the 2006 FIFA World Cup. The Portuguese national team, Selecção Nacional, has won two FIFA World Youth Championships and several other UEFA youth championships. After a third place in the 1966 FIFA World Cup, they finished in fourth place at the 2006 FIFA World Cup. In addition, they finished second in Euro 2004, their best result in this competition to date. SL Benfica, Sporting Clube de Portugal and FC Porto, are the main clubs, often known as "os três grandes" ("the big three"). Benfica has played in the UEFA Champions League final (then the UEFA Champions Cup) seven times and has two titles, FC Porto also has two titles in that competition and a UEFA Cup. Benfica is the most popular club in Portugal with more than 160000 affiliates and is recognised by the Guinness World Records as the club with more affiliates in the world. Sporting Clube de Portugal has won a European Cup Winners' Cup. Portugal has a successful rink hockey team, with 15 world titles and 20 european titles, making it the country with more wins in both competitions. The most important Portuguese hockey clubs in the European championships are FC Porto, SL Benfica, and Óquei de Barcelos. The national rugby union team have not yet qualified for a Rugby World Cup, but are very close to entering France 2007. The Portuguese national team of Rugby Sevens is also strong, becoming one of the strongest teams, proving their status as European champions. Francis Obikwelu again won two European gold medals in the 100 m and the 200 m in 2006, having already received gold and silver medals in 2004 and a silver in the 2004 Summer Olympics. Naide Gomes is a European elite athlete in pentathlon and long jump. In the triathlon, Vanessa Fernandes, three times European champion in elite sub-23, won the silver medal in the world championships and became the winner of 2006's World Cup by winning 12 consecutive Grand Prix (world record tied). [edit] Festivals and Holidays Main article: Culture of Portugal#Festivals and Holidays Festivals play a major role during the summer. Almost every city, town, and village has a festival, and they are especially popular in June, when events are dedicated to three saints known as the santos populares (popular saints: Saint Anthony, Saint John, and Saint Peter). Why the populace associated these Catholic saints with pagan festivities is not known, but it is possibly related to Roman or local deities who existed before Christianity spread into the region. These festivities generally include wine and água-pé (a watered-down wine), traditional bread, grilled sardines or traditional meat-based dishes, pimba music, traditional street dances, fireworks, and religious processions. [edit] Facts and figures Official date format: YYYY/MM/DD (ex. 2006/09/08) Common date format: DD/MM/YYYY (ex. 06/09/2006), dates are written out as DD de MM de YYYY (ex. 18 de Agosto de 2005) Decimal separator is a comma: 123,45 Thousands are officially separated by a space ? 10 000 ? although the point is still used ? 10.000. The currency is the euro, abbreviation ?, divided into 100 cêntimos (main article: Linguistic issues concerning the euro#Portuguese). The euro sign is commonly placed either before or after the amount, with the separator either a comma or a point: 10,95 ? - ? 10,95 - ? 10.95 - 10.95 ? Postal code: 4+3 digits, separated by a hyphen (main article: Postal code#Portugal). [edit] See also Topics related to Portugal edit History Timeline of Portuguese history, Kings of Portugal, Oestriminis, Ophiussa, Lusitanian, Roman Lusitania, Suebi, Establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, Order of Christ, 1383?1385 Crisis, Battle of Aljubarrota, Consolidation of Portugal, Discoveries Odyssey, Treaty of Tordesillas, Portuguese Empire, 1755 Lisbon earthquake, Peninsular War, Liberal Wars, Estado Novo, Carnation Revolution, Military Politics Constitution, Presidents of Portugal, Assembly of the Republic, Political parties, Council of State, Foreign relations, Elections, Political divisions, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza Geography Estrela Mtns., Volcanoes, Gerês (National Park), Regions, Islands (Azores & Madeira), Rivers, Roman Geography of Portugal, Cities (Greater Lisbon & Greater Porto), Municipalities Economy Euro (Portuguese coins), Companies, Bank of Portugal Demographics Languages (Portuguese & Mirandese), Catholic Church (Patriarch of Lisbon) Culture Music (Fado, Hip Hop Tuga, Pimba, Portuguese rock), musical instruments (Portuguese guitar & Cavaquinho), Literature, Cuisine & wines (Port wine, Madeira wine & Verde wine) Other Communications, Transportation (Lisbon Metro & Porto Metro), Universities, Flag, Monuments, Portuguese sidewalk, Portuguese birds, List of Portuguese People, Portuguese Canadians, Scouting Federation of Portugal, Lusophobia [edit] Notes and References ^ Grande Enciclopédia Universal, p. 10543, "Portugal", para. 4 ^ Poesia e Prosa Medievais, p. 9, para. 4 Ribeiro, Ângelo & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal I - A Formação do Território QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-106-6) Ribeiro, Ângelo & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal II - A Afirmação do País QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-107-4) de Macedo, Newton & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal III - A Epopeia dos Descobrimentos QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-108-2) de Macedo, Newton & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal IV - Glória e Declínio do Império QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-109-0) Ribeiro, Ângelo & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal V - A Restauração da Indepêndencia QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-110-4) Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal X - A Terceira República QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-115-5) Loução, Paulo Alexandre: Portugal, Terra de Mistérios Ésquilo, 2000 (third edition; ISBN 972-8605-04-8) Muñoz, Mauricio Pasto: Viriato, A Luta pela Liberdade Ésquilo, 2003 (third edition; ISBN 972-8605-23-4) Grande Enciclopédia Universal Durclub, 2004 Constituição da República Portuguesa, VI Revisão Constitucional, 2004 Programa do Movimento das Forças Armadas, 1974 [2]

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